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کتاب A Collection of 3000  Classified Multiple Choice Tests on English Literature

کتاب A Collection of 3000 Classified Multiple Choice Tests on English Literature

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درباره کتاب A Collection of 3000 Classified Multiple Choice Tests on English Literature

The current book contains around 3000 multiple choice questions divided into seven chapters namely: * literary criticism (532 test items) * history of English literature (597 test items) * literary schools (200 test items) * literary terms (480 test items) * poetry (505 test items) * novel (401 test items) * drama (349 test items) * TOTAL (3064 test items) The test items in each area are so varied that by simply studying them the reader can get a comprehensive idea of the topics covered. However, as the number of test items indicates, the authors are sure that the book will not be error-free. So they kindly request all the users of the book to provide the authors with their constructive comments and corrective points in both the test items and the suggested correct answers. They are also hoping to be able to provide the future editions with more subheadings if they feel that the users prefer the book that way.

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42. Which of the following indicates the author and the genre of Sublime?
a. Horace-literary criticism
b. Longinus-literary criticism
c. Sir Philip Sidney-poetry
d. Sir Philip Sidney-literary criticism
43. What is sublimity suggestive of in Longinus' doctrine?
a. Excellence and elevation in composition
b. Bombastic language
c. Organic unity
d. Timidity of language
44. Longinus, although ranked as a classical critic, rather firmly emphasizes............
a. the power of uplifting the reader's intellectual capacities
b. imaginative and emotional appeal
c. the power of uplifting the reader's soul through imaginative and emotional appeal
d. supernatural intervention in the ordinary course of events
45. "True sublime," Longinus states, lies in.............
a. excessive display of passions
b. thoughts of universal validity
c. thoughts common to particular men of particular locations
d. perpetual repression of passions
46. Which of the following classical critics approaches more similarly the aesthetic trend of modern criticism?
a. Longinus
b. Plato
c. Horace
d. Aristotle
47. Of the following, which one provides the most suitable definition for "affective fallacy"?
a. The error of evaluating a literary work in terms of its effects on morality.
b. The error of judgment of literary values not according to the text's own merits but according to the recognition of the author's intention.
c. The error of examining the values of a literary work in terms of its effects on the reader.
d. The error of exercising judgments on literary texts in terms of the intensity of the author's imaginative faculties.
48. Regarding the critical ideas revealed by the ancient classical masters of literary criticism, which of the following can be accused of the modern critical notion of "affective fallacy"?
a. Plato
b. Longinus
c. Horace
d. Aristotle
49. Which of the following is the predominant trend of literary criticism during the Medieval Period?
a. Sensuous
b. Humanistic
c. Aesthetic
d. Theological
50. The author and the literary era of Defense of Poesy are............
a. Samuel Johnson- Neo-Classicism
b. Sir Philip Sidney- Renaissance
c. Ben Jonson- Renaissance
d. Stephen Gosson - Renaissance
51. The most appropriate definition of "Renaissance" is the revival of............
a. Italian values in art
b. Medieval ethical dogmas
c. Belief in the ancient deities
d. Interest in the standards and models formulated by the ancient classical masters in art and literature.
52. Sir Philip Sidney, in defense of poetry, demonstrates the superiority of poetry over history and philosophy. His argument reveals that............
a. history teaches virtue by example alone, while philosophy teaches it by precept alone.
b. Poetry combines the details of the historian with the abstractness of the philosopher thus accomplishing this dual task. He deals with both examples and precepts.
c. The poet gives perfect examples of virtue suitable for human imitation. Men reach philosopher's abstractions through the vivid and moving example of the poet.
d. Combining historian's example with philosopher's precept, the poet makes philosopher's difficult abstractions understandable through the vivid examples of the historian.
53. Sir Philip Sidney lays emphasis on the "transport" aspect of poetry related to the instructive quality of poetry. How would you account for Sir Philip Sidney's notion of transport?
a. Poetry transports men to a world of illusions.
b. Poetry does not merely give us knowledge of virtue. It also moves virtuous actions.
c. Poetry entices men to vicious actions.
d. Poetry teaches men a better understanding of life.
54. Poetry is "the mother of lies". Decide through which of the following statements Sir Philip Sidney has most convincingly refuted this.
a. Literary lies are permitted in all human communities.
b. A poet cannot lie, for he deals not with facts but with fiction containing ideal truth.
c. Literary truth is in sharp contrast to fidelity to facts.
d. In order to transport the soul of the reader, the poet must be real.
55. How does Sir Philip Sidney provide a reply to the Puritan denunciation of poetry based on Plato's authority who has banished poet’s commonwealth due to their possession of demoralizing effect?
a. Plato is a moralistic philosopher and is thus incapable of literary appreciation.
b. Moral instruction and literary value are unlikely to cohere in a work.
c. What is to be condemned is the abuse of poetry not poetry itself.
d. Poetry does not feed passions rather, by awakening them, it creates emotional balance.
56. Determine which of the following reflects Sir Philip Sidney's definition of poetry.
a. Poetry is an imitation of an action that is serious.
b. Poetry is an art of imitation, a speaking picture with this end-to-end delight.
c. Poetry is the exploitation of words.
d. Poetry is the ostentatious exhibition of perfection in the metaphoric use of language.
57. In Sir Philip Sidney's philosophy, what is the purpose and function of poetry?
a. Delightful instruction b. Pure pleasure
c. Attainment of perfection d. Sheer instruction
58. Determine Sir Philip Sidney's stance regarding poetry and imitation.
a. Poetry is an imitation of nature.
b. Poetry is a creative rather than an imitative process.
c. Poets convert nature's brazen to a golden world.
d. Poetry is a creative process through which the poet converts the world to a golden one.
59. What poetic faculty in Sir Philip Sidney's criticism makes the major contribution to the fulfillment of "creation" in the poetic process?
a. Inspiration
b. Imagination
c. Hard labor
d. Imitation
60. Dramatic criticism in England began with............
a. John Dryden
b. Ben Jonson
c. Sir Philip Sidney d. William Shakespeare
61. Sir Philip Sidney's theory of tragedy is principally based upon............
a. Platonic viewpoints
b. Aristotelian notions and Senecan drama
c. Longinus' views in "On the Sublime"
d. Sophocles and Euripides
62. Of the following which one accords with Sir Philip Sidney's critical notions?
a. Tragedy is an imitation of a noble action stirring admiration and commiseration and teaches uncertainty of the world and the weak foundations upon which golden roofs are built.
b. Comedy is an imitation of human vices and wickedness represented in the most ridiculous manner, so that the spectator is anxious to avoid such voices himself.
c. Human follies and errors are the proper themes of tragedy.
d. Tragedy is not merely to provide delight. It must also correct and improve.
63. The coherent fusion of form and content, the two essential components of a literary work, results in the completion of an artistic whole. Relate this theory to Sir Philip Sidney's notion of the purpose of poetry.
a. Sir Philip Sidney's content is the very didactic aspect of poetry. Form to him is the artistic quality that moves the reader to follow the moral lesson.
b. The poet's task is to improve through amusement.
c. Poetry is moving to virtuous action.
d. The delightful instruction, Sir Philip Sidney's criterion of perfect poetry, is suggestive of the union of form and content, thus reaffirming all the above statements.
64. Which of the following literary critics is a neoclassic?
a. Horace
b. John Dryden
c. P.B. Shelley
d. Sir Philip Sidney
65. What is meant by "nature" in its Neoclassical concept?
a. Human instincts
b. External nature
c. General human nature, universal qualities common to all men
d. Artistic genius
66. Neoclassical era is also called.......... period.
a. Augustan
b. Restoration
c. Neoplatonic
d. Johnsonian
67. An important landmark in the history of literary criticism in England, "Essay on Dramatic Poesy" belongs to............
a. Sir Philip Sidney b. John Dryden
c. Samuel Johnson d. Ben Jonson
68. Which of the following is John Dryden's definition of imaginative literature?
a. Overflow of emotions recollected in tranquility.
b. The record of the best and the happiest moments of the happiest hearts.
c. A just and lively image of human nature, representing passion moors and the changes of fortune
d. An imitation of an action that is serious and complete in its magnitude.
69. "The delight and instruction of mankind" is the purpose of literature in John Dryden's view. How do form and content succeed to accomplish this purpose?
a. Delight comes from liveliness of style. Instruction comes from recognition of facts of human nature.
b. Delight comes from the moral lessons taught by the poet.
c. Instruction is a moral instruction.
d. Delightful instruction comes from the poet's genius in handling of a literary creation.
70. In both Sir Philip Sidney and John Dryden's literary criticism, the purpose of literature is to delight and to instruct. In what respect do the two approaches differ?
a. Sir Philip Sidney and John Dryden are quite similar in terms of purpose.
b. John Dryden's instruction is in morality, while Sir Philip instruction is at the service of social reform.
c. John Dryden's instruction is religious, while Sir Philip Sidney's instruction is purely aesthetic.
d. Sir Philip Sidney's instruction is in morality, while John Dryden's instruction is in psychology.
71. John Dryden's imitation of classical rules is not slavish. Also, the blind adherence to unities is of little value to him. Thus, he can be called the pioneer of............
a. Romanticism b. Neoclassicism
c. Liberal classicism d. the theatre of the absurd
72. "The ancient rules discovered not devised / are nature still, but nature methodized." To whom does this couplet belong?
a. Alexander Pope b. William Wordsworth
c. John Dryden d. Sir Philip Sidney
73. "True wit is nature to advantage dressed / what oft was thought, but never so well expressed". What does Alexander Pope mean by "expressed"?
a. The artistic invention is more important than the classical rules.
b. The content and form are two distinctive factors.
c. Expression is the dress of thought. By "well expressed" he must have implied the imaginative way in which the general truths are expressed.
d. Thought is superior to expression, for it is stable; however, expression varies according to the writer's taste.
74. "The winged courser, like a generous horse / shows most true metal when you check his course." Who is the poet of this metaphoric couplet? What characteristic quality does he emphasize?
a. John Dryden, order
b. Alexander Pope, nature
c. Alexander Pope, restraint
d. John Dryden, restraint
75. The criticism of the "Age of Johnson" reflects a ………..
a. deep respect for the classical precepts
b. close relationship between man and nature
c. tendency toward Romantic spontaneity
d. dual trend, one is the persistence of the neoclassical views, and the other is the rise of Romanticism.
76. What is Dr. Samuel Johnson's position as a critic?
a. He is a Romantic-Classical critic, blending Classical rules with Romantic subjectivity.
b. He is a pioneer of Romantic freedom and individuality who revolts against the servile imitation of the ancients.
c. He is the spokesman of the classical school, with an innate respect tradition and contempt for innovation in defense of tradition, order, discipline, and authority.
d. He rejects both classical and romantic theories and founds a Johnsonian theory of criticism.
77. Dr. Samuel Johnson's objective, "to wed poetry with life" seems indicative of the dominant..........in his literary criticism.
a. anti-escapist realism
b. anti-conventional romanticism
c. premature surrealism
d. neoclassicism
78. In Samuel Johnson's critical doctrine, the nature and function of poetry is an art of............
a. uniting pleasure with truth
b. imaginative representation of life
c. intellectual display of life
d. elevation both in thought and diction
79. As a sturdy upholder of neoclassical principles, how does Samuel Johnson evaluate blank verse?
a. He approves of it, for it is easy and natural.
b. He condemns it, for rhyme is essential for poetry not only for pleasure but also for imparting emphasis.
c. He rejects blank verse, since it lacks elevated diction.
d. He dislikes it, since it makes poetic language similar to prose.
80. "Nothing can please many, and please long, but just representation of general nature." To whom does this statement belong?
a. Ben Jonson
b. Alexander Pope
c. Samuel Johnson d. John Dryden
81. Samuel Johnson asserts".......... is above all writers, the poet of nature, the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and life."
a. Homer
b. William Shakespeare
c. Alexander Pope d. Aristotle
82. The implication of Samuel Johnson's "general nature" is what is found in “............”
a. All people of a country
b. Ancient times
c. External nature
d. Most people in most ages
83. "Shakespeare familiarizes the wonderful", Samuel Johnson asserts. How would you elaborate on this assertion?
a. William Shakespeare's characters are not heroes but men of common humanity with actions and reactions probable and imitable by all men.
b. William Shakespeare's people are humble and are chosen from common people.
c. Even where the agency is supernatural, the dialog is level with life.
d. William Shakespeare's characters are not individuals but species.
84. Emphasizing "general nature" Samuel Johnson seems to give credence to..........who says, "To copy Homer is to copy nature."
a. John Milton
b. John Dryden
c. Alexander Pope d. William Shakespeare
85. Samuel Johnson praises William Shakespeare even though he has written tragic comedies. How has Samuel Johnson justified this anticlassical genre?
a. By mixing tears and smiles, vice and virtue William Shakespeare creates comic relief.
b. In mixing good and evil, tears and smiles and in mingling tragedy and comedy, William Shakespeare holds a mirror to life.
c. By avoiding either pure tragedy or pure comedy he prolongs the audience's appeal.
d. Presenting either vice or virtue appeals only to a particular group of spectators.
86. Of the following literary figures, which one is a romantic?
a. Samuel Johnson b. Samuel Taylor Coleridge
c. Joseph Addison d. Jonathan Swift
87. Samuel Taylor Coleridge's theory of imagination divides imagination into two kinds:.......... imagination.
a. primary and secondary b. high and low
c. receptive and non-receptive d. universal and particular
88. To Samuel Taylor Coleridge, it is.......... that makes artistic creation possible.
a. fancy
b. primary imagination
c. organic unity d. secondary imagination
89. The function of secondary imagination, the basis of artistic activity as Samuel Taylor Coleridge claims, is a.......... function.
a. dissociating
b. synthesizing
c. contracting
d. concentrating
90. The primary imagination is............
a. universal and possessed by all
b. the peculiar gift enjoyed by an artist
c. common to both ordinary men and artists
d. a privilege achieved by voluntary demand
91. Samuel Taylor Coleridge says "it dissolves, diffuses, dissipates, in order to create". What does "it" refer to? What does it suggest?
a. Primary imagination receives sensations, orders them, and reduces them to shape.
b. Secondary imagination unconsciously converts perceptions to objects of beauty.
c. Secondary imagination selects, orders, and reshapes willingly the raw material provided by the primary imagination into objects of beauty.
d. Primary imagination provides the raw material for the creation of artistic beauty.
92. Samuel Taylor Coleridge makes a distinction between imaginational fancy. He places............
a. imagination superior to fancy
b. fancy superior to imagination
c. both in the same rank with differences merely in degrees
d. fancy at the top of the hierarchy of creative agents
93. Which of the following is true about the function of imagination described by Samuel Taylor Coleridge?
a. Imagination arbitrarily brings together different images.
b. Imagination is a creative faculty.
c. Imagination creates new shapes of beauty by unifying different impressions.
d. Imagination is a kind of memory; it is a mechanical juxtaposition.
94. Samuel Taylor Coleridge's theory of imagination demonstrates that fancy is............
a. not creative. It is a kind of memory; it brings together images arbitrarily.
b. the quality which allows images that are brought together to retain their individual properties.
c. merely a mechanical juxtaposition and not a chemical fusion.
d. merely a mechanical juxtaposition of images retaining their individual properties.
95. Samuel Taylor Coleridge's theory of poetry is in sharp contrast with the classical view of poetry as imitation with instruction and delight as its end. As a romantic, Samuel Taylor Coleridge holds that............
a. pleasure is the end of poetry.
b. pleasure is the end of poetry, which is an activity of imagination.
c. poetry is an activity of imagination.
d. poetry is imitation plus imagination.
96. What is, in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's theory, the essential factor for the creation of a legitimate poem?
a. Elevated style b. Organic unity
c. Didactic content d. Rhyme and meter
97. By organic unity, Samuel Taylor Coleridge refers to ………...
a. the interrelatedness of the poem's parts to form a whole.
b. rhyme and meter not as "superadded" but as integral to the poem.
c. the inter-connection between the parts and the whole, the unity of form and content, rhyme and meter as integral parts of the poem.
d. the pleasure of poetry which is a special kind of pleasure, arising from the parts.
98. Supernatural elements, Samuel Taylor Coleridge's typical poetic devices, do not accord with neoclassical dramatic illusion and credibility. What is Samuel Taylor Coleridge's phrasal justification to resolve this controversy?
a. Willing suspension of disbelief
b. Poetic infidelity to facts
c. Credulousness of the audience
d. Artistic deception
99. Samuel Taylor Coleridge's criticism is...........
a. legislative
b. historical
c. judicial
d. impressionistic

162. By "plurality" of method, the Chicago critics mean the............
a. emphasis on literary tradition, yet, without a servile reverence for classical principals
b. Aristotelian inductive method on the textual study of the work, its form, design and texture
c. end of criticism is to illuminate the work under study, thus, all possible methods can be used
d. emphasis on literary tradition, the Aristotelian inductive method, textual study, the form, design and texture
163. The Chicago school is also called the.......... school.
a. modern
b. neo-Aristotelian
c. neoclassical
d. anti-formalist
164. A. Richards holds that there is an essential dichotomy between the...........
a. language of science and the language of art
b. classical and the modern modes of criticism
c. language of poetry and the language of common people
d. classical and the modern notion of elevated style
165. Belonging to the wave of New Criticism, I. A. Richards insists on........
a. the special nature of the language of literature
b. the work of art as being a verbal fact
c. close textual and verbal study and analysis of a work of art
d. close textual analysis of a literary work due to the special nature of the language of literature, as well as its being a verbal fact
166. I.A. Richards' approach to literary criticism is...........
a. aesthetic
b. psychological
c. didactic
d. aristotelian
167. "The true value of a literary work is received only through........... " I. A. Richards asserts.
a. measuring its merits by classical examples
b. complete detachment from the writer
c. a properly perceptive kind of reading
d. examining the presence of high seriousness
168. "Poetry differs from science", I. A. Richards asserts, "in it’s............ "
a. objective to communicate a valuable kind of psychological adjustment
b. special meaning attributed to words which are emotive
c. special meaning attributed to words which are referential, or scientific
d. emotive meaning attributed to words, as well as the psychological adjustment it communicates as an objective
169. Sir Philip Sidney's defense of poetry argues that poetry gives a moving picture of ideal truth, while, I. A. Richards' psychological defense suggests that............
a. poetry creates certain psychological states of mind
b. poetry leads to a proper balance of the nervous system
c. by means of imagination man escapes from unpleasant reality
d. poetry strengthens the aesthetic sense of the reader
170. I. A. Richards' discussion of the difference between scientific and poetic truth reveals that the poet makes........... statements.
a. pseudo-
b. true
c. aesthetic
d. poetic
171. "I. A. Richards is a new critic with a difference". What is implied by this statement?
a. His difference lies in his concern about the writer's social status.
b. His insistence on verbal analysis is a sign of his formalistic tendency.
c. His stress on the reactions and effects of a literary work on the readers makes him different from the new critics.
d. His formalistic tendency is revealed in his stress on verbal analysis, while his concern about the readers' reactions makes him different from the New Critics.
172. What is the difference between the nature of Aristotelian Catharsis and Richardsian Catharsis?
a. The former comes from cleansing of extra passions, while the latter exerts excessive display of emotional balance.
b. The former results from the purgation of excessive emotions, while the latter results from the harmonization of opposite impulses.
c. The nature of Catharsis in both is alike.
d. Richardsian Catharsis is the modern version of Aristotelian Catharsis.
173. Feminist literary criticism, as a part of the women's liberation movement of the 1970's, argues that...........
a. good literary criticism puts equal emphasis on male and female authors
b. good literary criticism is sexless
c. valid literary criticism that claims universality must include the feminine consciousness
d. valid literary criticism must evaluate literary works in terms of the contribution to the repudiation of male-dominated decrees
174. A particularly renowned work among the writings of feminist critics is ………..
a. A Room of One's Own, by Virginia Woolf
b. The Mill on the Floss, by Virginia Woolf
c. A Room of One's Own, by George Eliot
d. Wuthering Heights, by Emile Bronte
175. Feminist critics assert that to be good...........
a. only criticism, not literature must move beyond both sexes into an erogenous point of view.
b. both criticism and literature must move beyond both sexes into an erogenous point of view.
c. both criticism and literature must emphasize the female superiority.
d. literary criticism must be devoted to the evaluation of female writers.
176. Archetypal criticism, sharing the psychological critic's interest in unconscious psyche, explores.......... aspects of the human psyche.
a. both collective and individual b. collective
c. individual
d. mythical
177. According to Northrop Frye, a well-known archetypal critic, the main difference between archetypal analysis and earlier critical perspective is............
a. its close relationship with anthropology
b. an awareness of the total coherence of literature
c. the expansive employment of mythical allusions
d. the concept of the collective unconscious
178. The basic contention of archetypal criticism is that literary expression is a(n)............
a. unconscious product of the individual experience of the writer
b. conscious product achieved through both practice and genius
c. unconscious product of the collective experience of the entire human species
d. unconscious product of the collective experience of a particular nation
179. Literature is integrally related to man's cultural past, according to archetypal critics, thus.......... are of particular interest to these critics.
a. non-literary fields of man's historical past, religion, anthropology, and folklore
b. man's civilizations, his rites, rituals, folk ways and myths
c. all the beliefs and practices that combine to form human cultural behavior
d. non-literary fields of man's historical past, his civilization, rites, rituals, anthropology, folklore, myths, all beliefs that combine to form human cultural behavior.
180. Jung believes that the collective unconscious is not directly knowable. But it expresses itself in the form of a(n)...........
a. motif
b. archetype
c. image
d. symbol
181. Jung asserts that the archetype is...........
a. recurrent
b. universal
c. particular
d. universal and recurrent
182. Which of the following accurately defines myth according to archetypal criticism?
a. Myth is a dynamic factor everywhere in human society.
b. Myth is a superstitious tale which has ceased to appeal to belief.
c. Myth is unique and individualistic applicable to a particular group of people
d. Myth is collective, communal, and ubiquitous in time and place gathering the entire humanity within a universal whole.
183. Of the following statements, which one is true?
a. Archetypal criticism is the record of personal responses.
b. The major concern of an archetypal critic is to examine literature with the hope of discovering underlying mythical patterns.
c. T. S. Eliot's criticism is a reaction against archetypal criticism.
d. Both psychological and mythological approaches to literary criticism emphasize the individual unconscious aspect of human psyche.
184. "Art is not created in a vacuum; it is the work not simply of a person but of an author fixed in time and space". This statement affirms the validity of.......... criticism.
a. mythological b. formalistic
c. historical biographical d. psychological
185. Impressionistic criticism is the record of the critic's............
a. own appreciation of aesthetic merits, untrammeled by any rules and regulations
b. adherence to the classical impressions on literary masterpieces
c. disinterested appreciation of a literary work resulting from examining reader's impression
d. dependence on the sensations and impressions received by his prim imagination
186............ criticism pronounces judgment on works of literature on basis of rules derived from the ancient Greek and Latin masters.
a. Legislative
b. Judicial
c. Ontological
d. Traditional
187. The emotions expressed in poetry, T. S. Eliot asserts, should be ………. emotions.
a. classical
b. personal
c. controlled
d. depersonalized
188. The employment of an objective correlative is essential, according to T. S. Eliot, for, it.......... poetic emotions.
a. heightens
b. unifies
c. objectifies
d. restrains
189. "Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion". To whom does this definition belong?
a. T. S. Eliot
b. Matthew Arnold
c. I.A. Richards d. Aristotle
190. Psychological and archetypal criticism are..........
a. identical, both emphasizing the unconscious mind.
b. different; psychological criticism deals with the unconscious, while archetypal criticism deals with the conscious mind.
c. identical in the emphasis both lay on the unconscious mind، yet are different in that, psychological criticism deals with individual unconscious, while archetypal criticism deals with collective unconscious.
d. different; psychological criticism emphasizes the collective unconscious, while archetypal criticism emphasizes the individual unconscious.
191. "Spontaneity of consciousness" is what Arnold calls Greek.......... and Italian renaissance.
a. mythology
b. vitality
c. catch words
d. gentility
192............ sees the unity of man and nature of past and present and life and death locked in a round of identities.
a. Auden
b. Lawrence
c. Dylon Thomas d. Austen
193. "The literary essays" is a book by...........
a. Dryden
b. Bunyan
c. Dr Johnson
d. Arnold
194. "Essays in criticism" is a book written by...........
a. Arnold
b. Johnson
c. Dryden
d. Hazlitt
195. Words, images, and symbols rather than characters, thoughts and plots are the central theme in ………. school.
a. Romantic
b. Neoclassic
c. Expressionism d. New criticism
196. “The Art of novel” is written by...........
a. Henry James
b. Frye
c. Grave
d. O'weil
197. Which of the following is written by Samuel Johnson?
a. Lives of poets b. The rape of the lock
c. An essay on criticism d. Essay on man
198. Aesthetic tradition is directly related to the ideas of ……….
a. Oliver Elton
b. Walter Pater
c. Mathew Arnold d. William Empson
199. ……… criticism studies the effect of a work intern of its subject’s organization and techniques.
a. Judicial
b. Pragmatic
c. Expressive
d. Objective
200........... approaches often led to the study of literature as essentially biography or history rather than as art.
a. New critics
b. Traditional
c. Exponential
d. The stylistics
201. Anatomy of criticism is written by..........
a. James
b. Burton
c. Frye
d. Richards
202. Criticism is a.......... way of approaching a piece of literature.
a. historical
b. traditional
c. rhetorical
d. psychological
203. Greek tragedy had unity of action; that is to say it had one and only one...........
a. action
b. stage
c. setting
d. plot
204. Negative capability means...........
a. the ability of a poet to escape from or negate his own personality to open himself fully to the complex reality around him
b. the forceful impression made on a beholder by the inner energies of a thing's being
c. the error of evaluating a work of an art by negating one's own personality
d. unity of sensibility
205. Art for Art's sake expresses the prevailing literary philosophy of.............
a. Edgar Allen Poe b. Oscar Wilde
c. Robert Frost d. Browning
206. The.......... believe that poetry is a special way of using language.
a. feminists
b. formalists
c. literary historians d. textual critics
207............ was the philosopher whose ideas influenced the drama of the absurd more strongly than others.
a. David Hume
b. George Berkeley
c. Henri Bergson d. Nietzsche
208. Dr. Johnson gave to the world the story of an Abyssinian prince in search of happiness in “...........”
a. Joseph Andrews b. Udolfo
c. Rasselas
d. Vathek
209. To which of the following critics does this statement belong: "The poet is a possessed creature speaking in a divinely inspired frenzy."?
a. Aristotle
b. Horace
c. Plato
d. Thoughtly
210. According to Aristotle which of the following elements is more important in a typical tragedy?
a. Character
b. Diction
c. Plot
d. Thought
211. Which of the following qualities should not be included in the plot of a typical tragedy according to Aristotle?
a. Complexity
b. Having a single issue
c. Simplicity
d. Imitation of actions arousing pity and fear
212. The archetype of sacrificial hero can be best traced in...........
a. Hamlet
b. Huckleberry Finn
c. Moby Dick
d. The Sound and the Fury
213. "Stream of Consciousness" is originally coined by...........
a. Edouard Dujardin b. Henry James
c. James Joyce d. William James
214. Aristotle can be taken as the great expounder of the.......... theory.
a. expressive
b. mimetic
c. objective
d. pragmatic
215. According to Northrop Frye, an archetype is...........
a. applied to primordial images
b. applied to narrative designs
c. essentially an element of one's literary experience
d. psychic residue
216. The foremost Latin critic is Horace, whose “..........” has exercised considerable power.
a. Art of English Poesies b. Art of Poetry
c. Decorum Gentilium d. Epistle
217. The critic who believes that imitation means imitation of the ancient poets or poets who wrote in the past, is..........
a. Aristotle
b. Horace
c. Plato
d. Mathew Arnold
218. Coleridge's analogy of "life principle" in a work of art and that of "living organicism" is similar to the view of ………...
a. Aristotelians
b. Linguists
c. Formalists
d. Myth critics
219. When the reader is concerned with the way the principles of epic are inverted in "The Rape of the Luck," he follows a.......... approach.
a. biographical
b. generic
c. mythological d. psychological
220. The organic unity of structure and meaning is greatly emphasized in..........
a. archetypal criticism b. deconstruction
c. historical criticism d. new criticism
221. Eliot's "tradition and the Individual talent" is said to have contributed to the development of ……… criticism.
a. rhetorical
b. psychological
c. formalistic
d. biographical
222. The great influence of Aristotle's poetic views began in the...........
a. 17th century
b. 19th century
c. Renaissance d. Middle ages
223. According to Longinus, ……… is the effect of elevated language on the reader.
a. teaching
b. delight
c. persuasion
d. transport
224. In which of his books did Plato give his famous theory of poetry?
a. The Republic b. The Feast
c. Poetics
d. The Ion
225. According to whom is the poet’s art "an inferior who marries an inferior and has inferior offspring"?
a. Horace
b. Plato
c. Sophocles
d. Homer
226. "That God being good is the author of evil to anyone is to be strenuously denied, and not to be said or sung / or heard in verse or prose by anyone". The above lines are taken from ………..
a. Poetics
b. The Republic
c. Art of Poetry d. The Ion
227. "She lets them rule, although they ought to be controlled, if mankind is ever to increase in happiness and virtue." To whom or what do the pronouns she and they refer to according to Plato?
a. Helen of Troy – Kings b. Poetry - Feelings
c. Women - Men d. The Muse - Poetry
228. According to Plato regarding the poets celebrated by the Republic, all of the following are correct except someone ……….
a. who has musical and poetical gifts
b. who is honorable in the state
c. who is not less than fifty years of age
d. whose poems are dedicated to Gods
229. What do epic, poetry, tragedy and comedy have in common according to Aristotle?
a. Aesthetics
b. Imitation
c. Catharsis
d. Decorum

Chapter One: Literary Criticism

1. Which three elements best define Post Modernism?
a. Randomness, excess, and discontinuity
b. Nature, faith, and solidity
c. Montage, metaphor, and absurdity
d. Flashback, fragmentation, and humor
2. Semiotics can be defined as............
a. the study of signs: their production, communication, and social function
b. a general theory and practice of interpretation
c. a study of symbolic picture, plus motto and explanation
d. the theory that words have an expressive or simulative aspect which helps to illustrate their meanings more immediately
3. The writer who wrote comedies, tragedies, masques and lyrics, and for whom the function of literature was to instruct was............
a. John Dryden
b. Alexander Pope
c. John Donne
d. Ben Jonson
4. Expressionist drama has the following features except: ……….
a. It is concerned not with society but with man.
b. It offers a psychological analysis of a type, not so much of an individual.
c. Through symbolic figures, it attempts to make clear psychological complexities of character.
d. It unfolds the working of the conscious and the unconscious mind.
5. The incorrect statement is: ………….
a. German literature and English literature were influenced by French symbolism.
b. Baudelaire and his successors elevated the poet to the rank of priest or prophet.
c. Transcendental symbolism and human symbolism form part of correspondences.
d. In surrealism, the writer develops his work logically in order to show the working of the conscious mind.
6. "A little learning is a dangerous thing; drink deep or taste not Pierian spring." This is a quotation from............
a. Alexander Pope b. Samuel Johnson
c. Joseph Addison d. Jonathan Swift
7. Whose statement is it: "I heartily hate and detest that animal called man."
a. Alexander Pope b. Samuel Johnson
c. Joseph Addison d. Jonathan Swift
8. Which is the work of William Wordsworth that scholars claim its source are Plato's Phaedrus and Phaedo?
a. Ode: intimations of immortality
b. Elegiac Stanzas
c. I travelled among unknown men
d. Resolution and independence
9. Alexander Pope's “Essay on Man” owes its content to the philosophies of............
a. Descartes
b. Spinoza
c. Hobbes
d. Viscount Bolingbroke
10. Which of these influenced G. B. Shaw?
a. Nietzsche
b. William Congreve
c. John Dryden d. Viscount Bolingbroke
11. The systematic literary criticism began in ancient Greece through the forceful ideas uttered by............
a. Longinus
b. Plato
c. Aristotle
d. Horace
12. T. S. Eliot disapproves of Hamlet, the most universally admired Shakespearean tragedy, for its lack of............
a. sense of tradition b. organic unity
c. objective correlation d. tragic effect
13. The wave of new criticism began by a number of critics who............
a. rejected the knowledge of the poet's biography
b. stressed close textual analysis
c. considered social milieu an influential factor
d. disregarded historical and biographical factors
14. Matthew Arnold defines literary criticism as............
a. a disinterested endeavor to learn and propagate the best that is known and thought in the world.
b. a method of promoting the enjoyment and understanding of literature.
c. an exercise of judgment on the merits of literary works.
d. a task whereby the true critic will dwell on excellencies rather than imperfections.
15. "Dissociation of sensibility," T. S. Eliot's critical phrase, indicates the............
a. split between thought and feeling set in the late 17th century.
b. link between thought and feeling expressed in Romantic poetry.
c. detachment of the artist from his work.
d. complete separation of the man who suffers and the mind that creates.
16. Plato's approach to poetry can be considered as............
a. traditional
b. utilitarian
c. aesthetic
d. analytic
17. Plato is an idealist; thus, to him the act of artistic creation is because............
a. truth lies only in the world of ideal.
b. it is not conducive to social stability.
c. poets are not concerned about ethical issues.
d. the world of reality is not true.
18. "Poets are..........inspired," Plato claims. Therefore, they consider poetry not as a craft, but by the aid of some irrational mysteries.
a. instinctively
b. mysteriously
c. artistically
d. divinely
19. "Poetry feeds and waters the passions instead of drying them; it lets them rule, instead of ruling them." This is the charge against poetry by............
a. Aristotle in answer to Plato
b. Plato on intellectual grounds
c. Plato on moral grounds
d. Aristotle blaming poetry
20. The remedy suggested by T. S. Eliot for the literary disease "dissociation of sensibility”, is.......... of sensibility which means the union of...........
a. association / hearts. b. unification / arts.
c. attachment / poetry. d. detachment / thoughts.
21. "To evaluate the presence or absence of high quality in a literary work, a critic ought to have a touchstone of great classical masters."This assertion is uttered by............
a. I.A. Richards b. Matthew Arnold
c. T. S. Eliot
d. Cleanth Brooks
22. Which one of the following assertions is not a true account of literary figures?
a. T. S. Eliot is a classicist in literary criticism.
b. Plato is utilitarian and moralistic in literary criticism.
c. Aristotle defends poetry against Plato's charges.
d. Aristotle and Plato are the founders of formalism.
23. According to Plato, the truth revealed by poets is............
a. somewhat different from scientific truth
b. valuable and undoubtedly acceptable
c. imperfect and partial, thus it must be carefully examined
d. flawed and thus it is to be avoided at once
24. The idea of "repression of emotion" as a formula for a healthy society is advocated by............
a. Aristotle
b. Plato
c. Longinus
d. Horace
25. The most fundamental constituent of a tragedy in Aristotle's Poetics is............
a. character
b. diction
c. thought
d. plot
26. Complex plot in Aristotle's view is superior to the simple one, for it contains............
a. Peripeteia
b. Heroic exploits
c. Discovery
d. Peripeteia and Anagnorisis
27. "Arousing pity and fear" as the function of tragedy in Aristotle's Poetics results in an emotional relief called............
a. Anagnorisis
b. Comic relief
c. Catharsis
d. Peripeteia
28. Regarding the "action" of tragedy, Aristotle lays great emphasis upon..........
a. incredibility
b. superfluity
c. probability and necessity d. miraculous events
29. Aristotle emphatically acknowledges the superiority of poetry over history because poetry deals with............
a. the universals not the particulars
b. the temporary and the local
c. things as they actually are
d. the universal truths with the emphasis upon what ought to be than what it is
30. Aristotle justifies poetry against Plato's censure and asserts that...........
a. poetry is an imitation of the facts of life
b. the poet does not copy the reality, but converts it according to desires of the audience
c. poetry is not an imitative, but a creative process
d. Poetry is a creative process in which the poet transforms reality to the idea in his mind
31. "Historical Falsehood", the Aristotelian philosophical defense of poetry indicates that poetry reveals a more profound reality for it deals with............
a. probable impossibility b. improbable possibility
c. particular possibility d. universal impossibility
32. Plato's condemnation of art as a nourishing agent of passions demoralizes the society and is firmly defended by............
a. Aristotle's notion of purgation, which brings excessive emotions into balance by exciting them
b. Aristotle's medical term "catharsis", the restoration of pity and their right proportion by awaking them
c. Aristotelian theory of defamiliarization
d. Aristotelian theory of imitation
33. Plot, "the soul of tragedy" in Aristotle's view, must constitute an organic whole. Probability and necessity are two essential qualities to the attainment of organic unity. What does Aristotle imply by that?
a. There should be unnecessary events.
b. The various events should be interrelated with a sort of artistic logic.
c. The events must follow each other inevitably.
d. Without any unnecessary events, various events should be logically interconnected and follow each other inevitably.
34. Which of the following gives a true definition of the Aristotle components of tragedy?
a. Anagnorsis is the reversal of fortune.
b. Purgation is the irony of circumstances.
c. Hamartia is a moral imperfection.
d. Hamartia is both a miscalculation and the error of judgment.
35. Which of the following pairs matches correctly?
a. Aristotle-Roman b. Virgil-Greek
c. Horace-Roman d. Homer-Roman.
36. To which literary epoch does Longinus belong?
a. Graeco-Roman b. Hellenistic
c. Medieval
d. Hellenic
37. The emphasis of Horace in literary criticism is upon...........
a. Inventiveness
b. Following Hellenistic poets and critics
c. Poetry as an inspiration rather than perspiration
d. Imitation of the standards of the ancient Greek (Hellenic) masters
38. Artistic excellence in Horace's formula is an outcome of............
a. disciplined wit b. incessant toil
c. imitation
d. wit
39. Horace prescribes the poets to mix pleasure with profit, thus his approach to literature is............
a. analytic
b. utilitarian
c. aesthetic
d. classical
40. The loyalty to the ancient Greek rules is clearly apparent in Horace's notion of decorum which means............
a. the suitability with which the diction and the audience's comprehension are matched to each other.
b. the appropriateness of style to genre.
c. the adoption of subjects with the Greek themes.
d. The fitness between the intellectual capacities of the author and the audience.
41. "Poetry is not inspiration but perspiration" must be a remark uttered by a (n).......... critic.
a. psychological b. impressionistic
c. classical
d. biographical

100. What characteristically Romantic theory in Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s criticism stands against the neoclassical concept of imitation?
a. Imagination
b. Subjectivity
c. Genius
d. Individuality
101. William Wordsworth's Preface to the lyrical ballads demonstrates forceful request for............
a. elevated style
b. simplicity both in theme and treatment
c. imitation of classical rules
d. didactic content
102. Which of the following definitions of poetry belongs to Wordsworth?
a. Poetry is a just and lively image of human nature.
b. Poetry is an imitation of a serious action.
c. Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings recollected in tranquility.
d. Poem is a composition in which all parts bear an organic relation.
103. Which of the following statements is NOT in accordance with William Wordsworth's critical notions?
a. Poet is a man speaking to men.
b. The rustic language with its simplicity easily communicates essential truths about human life.
c. The poetry of the classical school is very artificial and unnatural.
d. Meter is essential to poetry.
104. To William Wordsworth, poetic truth is.......... to the truth of philosophy and history.
a. similar
b. superior
c. inferior
d. inherent
105. "Every great poet is a teacher", William Wordsworth asserts, the aim of poetry to him is "pleasure". How does this romantic view reconcile these two poles?
a. William Wordsworth's conception of pleasure is moral, resulting from the realization of truth.
b. William Wordsworth's favorite poet teaches a moral lesson.
c. The mission of poetry is to purify the public, awakening their sensibility so as to communicate fresh and original truths of nature to them.
d. The pleasure achieved by poetry is through the spiritual uplifting of the reader leading to the moral health of a society.
106. "Poetry increases our knowledge of human life and human nature, so it makes us wiser and nobler". What agent carries out this Wordsworthian function of poetry?
a. Imagination and intuition b. Meddling intellect
c. Classical rules d. Common sense
107. Selecting incidents and situations from humble and common life, as well as the employment of simple and rustic language as William Wordsworth's theme and treatment, introduces him as a realist rather than a romanticist. What poetic faculty resolves this discrepancy?
a. Rhyme and meter change the tough realistic creation to a graceful romantic one.
b. Imagination makes common and usual look uncommon and unusual.
c. The incredible, miraculous happy endings make it romantic.
d. The elimination of reason and wisdom in rustic life is a convincing romantic element.
108. In William Wordsworth's doctrine, imagination is a..........faculty.
a. regulating
b. visualizing
c. universalizing, visualizing and creative
d. unifying and synthesizing
109. Aristotelian doctrine considers plot as the principal constituent. What is William Wordsworth's idea as a romanticist in this respect?
a. He agrees with Aristotle.
b. For him diction is the chief element.
c. For him it is the feeling that matters.
d. He is mainly concerned with the existence of grand thoughts.
110. In William Wordsworth's view of the nature and function of a poet, the poet has a............
a. social function so as to communicate his thoughts and feelings to his readers
b. more comprehensive soul
c. greater imagination to feel and react emotionally to events which he has not directly experienced
d. social mission which prompts him to convey his thoughts to his readers; poet's possession of a more comprehensive soul and greater imagination enables him to react even to what he has not experienced directly
111. Which of the following does NOT match correctly?
a. Poetic truth is higher than the truth of history or philosophy - Aristotle.
b. Poetry has its origin in reason recollected in tranquility - William Wordsworth.
c. The mind of a man is a mirror to the beauty of nature- William Wordsworth's idea of the organic unity between man and nature.
d. Poetic diction is to be avoided, for it is artificial and arbitrary - William Wordsworth.
112. What philosophy does Shelley apply to resolve platonic dilemma?
a. Platonic ideas b. Aristotelian rules
c. Poetic justice d. Moral content of poetry
113. Plato exiles poets from his ideal state. Through this objection to poetry Shelley supports poetry by claiming that............
a. the real world is not a shadow of the ideal; it is true and original
b. the poet gets behind the copy and imitates directly the divine idea
c. the poet, by using his imagination, comes directly in contact with ideal truth
d. through imagination the poet gets behind the copy, imitates the idea, thus directly deals with the ideal truth
114. "Poetry is an expression of..........," Shelley says.
a. imagination
b. powerful feeling
c. human nature d. great thoughts
115. Shelley's critical notion based on imagination and moral health is that...........
a. sympathy is an instrument of moral; imagination produces sympathy. Thus, imagination is an instrument of morality
b. poetry strengthens sympathy, and sympathy moves the audience to moral goodness
c. poetry strengthens imagination; therefore, poetry is an instrument for good moral
d. sympathy is an instrument of good moral; imagination produces sympathy. Poetry strengthens imagination, thus, poetry is an instrument of good moral
116. "Poetry strips the veil of familiarity from the world and lays bare naked and sleeping beauty which is the spirit of its form”. What does Shelley suggest by this?
a. Poetry creates bizarre and abnormal images to draw the reader's attention.
b. Poetry shifts the attention from the boredom of routine to the loveliness and wonders of the world. That is to say poetry makes the familiar unfamiliar.
c. The act of distortion of reality is, in fact, a display of romantic excessive imagination.
d. Fidelity to facts is totally rejected, so all attempts should be made to the execution of the contrary.
117. "Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world". Who has made this statement?
a. Samuel Taylor Coleridge b. William Wordsworth
c. John Keats
d. P.B. Shelley
118. By means of...........P.B. Shelley defends poetry against Plato's attacks.
a. Platonic utilitarianism
b. Platonic idealism
c. Aristotelian idea on the necessity of emotional outlets
d. Sidney's view on poetry as "making"
119. A distinctive characteristic attribution of Victorian criticism is reflected in its tendency toward...........
a. imagination and genius
b. individuality
c. respect for authority, law, and order
d. medieval theological appreciation
120. Hippolyte Taine and Sainte-Beuve, the French critics, reinforce the realistic tendency of Victorian literature by emphasizing the importance of.......... in evaluating a work of art.
a. psychological analysis
b. historical and biographical background
c. textual analysis
d. the didactic achievement
121. Matthew Arnold, the most outstanding Victorian critic, is a(n).......... in literary criticism.
a. Romanticist
b. Realist
c. Classicist
d. Anti-conventionalist
122. Matthew Arnold's Classicism is seen in his...........
a. respect for the ancient Greek and Roman masters
b. passion for order and discipline
c. condemnation of Romantic individuality and subjectivity
d. touchstone method of examining the absence or presence of literary texts compared to some lines of the ancient masters.
123. Which of the following provides the correct interpretation for this quotation? "For a literary masterpiece, two powers must concur, the power of the man, and the power of the moment”.
a. Oscar Wilde influenced by Pierre Charles Baudelaire: It is the very moment of imaginative creation that turns a man into an artist.
b. Matthew Arnold influenced by Goethe: Man and moment mean the significant moment of artistic creation.
c. Matthew Arnold influenced by Hippolyte Taine: By man and moment the writer refers to his social milieu. A literary work is a product of social forces.
d. Walter Pater influenced by Pierre Charles Baudelaire: Artistic value measured merely by the intensity of feeling that describes the very moment of poetic inspiration.
124. Arnold defines poetry as............
a. criticism of life
b. the marriage of grief and pleasure
c. the aesthetic representation of life
d. the mirror held up to nature
125. Matthew Arnold is a Classicist; he is a follower of........... in his insistence on the importance of.......... as the prime thing.
a. Plato/imitation b. Aristotle/imagination
c. Aristotle/action d. Plato/ideal beauty
126. Matthew Arnold calls the Victorian era, an age of...........
a. cultural decline, vulgarization of values
b. philistinism, lack of moral grandeur
c. wide, artistic horizons
d. cultural decline due to the lack of moral grandeur
127. In Matthew Arnold's criticism, poet should choose subjects that last forever. Regarding his idea about his own age what would be the most suitable subject of poetry in Matthew Arnold's view?
a. Modern poets should choose modern subjects.
b. Due to the widespread philistinism of the era, Matthew Arnold's plea is for the choice of ancient classical subjects.
c. Subjects should vary, as the tastes of the readers vary from age to age.
d. Poets should choose subjects that can appeal to the majority.
128. Highest poetry, in Matthew Arnold's classical doctrine, results from...........
a. the seriousness of its substance
b. excellence of figurative language, the great amount of embellishment and decoration
c. the harmony of matter and manner, resulting from the cooperation of an excellent subject and a simple and severe style
d. style taking the place of subject, for treatment of a subject is of more importance than the subject itself
129. Matthew Arnold's adherence to Classical principles is seen in his idea of..........which is reminiscent of the sublime of Longinus.
a. restricted genius b. universal ideas
c. bombastic diction d. grand style
130. Matthew Arnold's view on the subject demonstrates his preference for subjects of............
a. high seriousness and truth of substance
b. universal appeal
c. public interest
d. national significance
131. By defining poetry as "criticism of life", Matthew Arnold implicitly claims that poetry is............
a. a critical interpretation of man's social and political prejudices
b. the noble and profound application of ideas to life
c. an imitation of the actions of the fallible and the deficient
d. a moral instruction aiming at correcting man's behavior
132. Which of the following correctly reflects Matthew Arnold's view on didacticism?
a. He defends didactic literature.
b. He advocates direct moral teaching.
c. He regards didactic poetry as the highest.
d. Being against direct moral teaching he calls didactic poetry as the lowest.
133. In Matthew Arnold's criticism, what is the right method to realize the presence or absence of high poetry?
a. Textual analysis b. Touchstone method
c. Biographical analysis d. Historical analysis
134. By the application of "touchstone method" devised by Matthew Arnold............
a. a critic must have a standard in his mind to evaluate artistic merits
b. a good critic makes critical judgments on the basis of contempt standard
c. a critic must always have in his mind lines and expressions of masters and apply them to other poetry
d. true criticism exists only in avoiding old and archaic models
135. In Matthew Arnold's definition of criticism, what does the word "disinterested" refer to?
a. The critic must keep himself aloof from the practical view of things.
b. An art for art's sake.
c. The critic must lend himself to mere political and practical considerations.
d. By keeping himself aloof from the practical view of things, a critic resists lending himself to mere political and practical considerations.
136. Which of the following correctly accords with Matthew Arnold's criticism?
a. Objective-aesthetician-classical
b. Objective-moral-classical
c. Subjective-moral-classical
d. Subjective-moral-romantic
137. Walter Pater, the greatest critic of later Victorian age...........
a. represents typical antithesis to Matthew Arnold. He is an advocate for "art for art's sake" doctrine.
b. is similar to Matthew Arnold in his close adherence to classical rules.
c. is associated with the absurd movement divorced from morality aiming at displaying the emptiness and meaninglessness of human existence.
d. is a didactic critic following Matthew Arnold's literary notions.
138. What is the influential viewpoint of T. E. Hulme on T. S. Eliot?
a. Impressionistic-aesthetic
b. Religious-classical and tragic
c. Biographical-historical
d. Art for art's sake
139. T. E. Hulme is a source of inspiration to Ezra Pound and other poets of the "Imagist School" whose chief emphasis is upon the use of...........
a. metaphysical conceits as the principal imagery of poems
b. grotesque and odd imagery
c. solid, concrete, and clear images for the expression of the poet's consciousness
d. bombastic and pompous diction
140. T. S. Eliot, in his critical doctrine, emphasizes the existence of........... for the expression of the writer's emotions.
a. objective correlative b. condensed imagery
c. chorus
d. elevated diction
141. T. S. Eliot's famous phrase "objective correlative" refers to............
a. the necessity of suppression of poetic emotions
b. a set of objects, a situation, a chain of events which shall be the formula for the poet's emotion
c. the coherent cooperation of form and content
d. the means of expressing poetic feeling borrowed from the classics
142. T. S. Eliot praises metaphysical poets, for they have achieved............
a. organic unity
b. excellence in far-fetched metaphors
c. fusion of thoughts and feelings
d. poetic justice
143. T. S. Eliot is a(n).......... in literature.
a. absurdist
b. classicist
c. romanticist
d. impressionist
144. What does T.S. Eliot mean by his phrasal critical notion "dissociation of sensibility"?
a. The separation of the artistic beauty and the external beauty.
b. The separation of imaginative genius and curbed genius.
c. The separation of thoughts and feelings set in the seventeenth century.
d. The split between poetic feelings and personal feelings.
145. Which of the following clarifies the concept of tradition used recurrently by T. S. Eliot as a chief factor in literary evaluation?
a. Tradition means blind adherence to the ways of previous generations.
b. Tradition is mere repetition of what has already been achieved.
c. Tradition is the maintenance of some dogmatic beliefs which are fixed and unchangeable.
d. Tradition is the knowledge of the past writers which is not inherited but obtained through labor by those who have the historical sense.
146. T.S. Eliot believes in the........... concept of tradition.
a. fixed
b. dynamic
c. romantic
d. classical
147. The relationship between past and present in T. S. Eliot's idea of tradition is............
a. reciprocal
b. one-sided
c. based on the dominance of the past over the present
d. based on the superiority of the present literary modes
148. What does T. S. Eliot imply by this assertion: "the more perfect artist, the more completely separate in him will be the man who suffers and the mind which creates"?
a. Detachment of the artist from social milieu
b. Artistic depersonalization
c. Art for art's sake
d. Individualistic tendency in poetry
149. Which of the following is true regarding T. S. Eliot's view on poetry?
a. Poetry is overflow of powerful feelings recollected in tranquility.
b. Poetry is turning loose of emotion, an expression of personality.
c. Poetry is an escape from emotion, and an escape from solidity.
d. Dissociation of sensibility began by the metaphysical poetry.
150. "Poetry is organization rather than inspiration". By this claim, T. S. Eliot refers to the greatness of a poem which depends on the............
a. greatness of emotions
b. greatness of the process of composition
c. personal emotions of the poet
d. external factors
151. What are the end and the aim of criticism in T. S. Eliot's words?
a. The end is elucidation of works of art and the correction of taste; the aim is the promotion of understanding and enjoyment of literature.
b. The end is the play of mind on the aesthetic qualities of literature; the aim is to provide intellectual appreciation of literature.
c. The end is the achievement of profit by means of pleasure; the aim is to promote the public appreciation of literature.
d. The end is the achievement of pure aesthetic sense; the aim is the development of aestheticism and the sense of beauty.
152. New Criticism (formalism) emphasizes the self-sufficiency of a literary work; therefore, it is also called............
a. independent approach b. imagism
c. aestheticism
d. ontological criticism
153. The new criticism is a literary revolution against the...........
a. Victorian aesthetic sense of literature
b. over-emphasis upon the author instead of the work
c. extravagant romantic expression of individual emotions
d. scientific development and significant social and economic changes
154. The new critics insist on the..........
a. primacy of the text
b. priority of the moral concerns
c. knowledge of the author's social milieu
d. social and political considerations
155. The close scrutiny of.......... so as to analyze their associative and symbolic significance is the major concern of the new criticism.
a. themes
b. words
c. moral issues d. biographical elements
156. I. A. Richards, a well-known modern critic, believes in the existence of........... languages.
a. elevated and colloquial b. formative and romantic
c. referential and emotive d. archaic and current
157. Formalistic criticism is...........
a. subjective
b. anti-impressionistic
c. obsessed with external factors d. romantic
158. Formalists define "intentional fallacy" as the error of............
a. judging a work of art in terms of its results in the mind of the audience
b. making judgments not on the basis of textual examination but on the external factors that have influenced the work under study
c. evaluating a literary work according to the psychological changes it creates in the audience
d. critical analysis by attempting to assess what the writer's intention was and whether or not he has fulfilled it
159. One of the critical fallacies in formalistic reproach is "affective fallacy" defined as the error of...........
a. confusing the poem and its instructive results.
b. critical evaluation in terms of its results and effects in the mind of readers; in other words, the confusion between the poem and its results.
c. making judgments by attempting a close textual analysis regardless of the author's intention.
d. examining the absence or presence of literary values in terms of its seriousness.
160. The "Chicago school" of literary criticism can be considered as a reaction against.......... criticism.
a. classical
b. Aristotelian
c. formalistic
d. historical
161. The approach of Chicago critics to literature is...........
a. psychological b. pluralistic
c. didactic
d. aesthetic

230. What are the two reasons stated by Aristotle in defense of poetry?
a. The pleasure men take in harmony and rhythm
b. To teach and to cause catharsis
c. The recreation of history and teaching
d. The creation of beauty and satisfying human emotions
231. The first romantic and comparative critic is ………..
a. Longinus
b. Plato
c. Sidney
d. Horace
232. The most important source of sublime is ………..
a. inspired emotion b. elevation of thought
c. rhetorical figures d. elevation of style
233. Amongst the following critics,.......... does not talk about imitation.
a. Plato
b. Longinus
c. Horace
d. Aristotle
234. "I have always held that any method which could produce the meaning of a work of literature was legitimate method". This quotation belongs to ……….
a. Oscar Cargill b. Oscar Wild
c. James Thorpe d. H. A. Taine
235. According to.........., textual criticism is the "science of discovering error in texts and the art of removing it."
a. H. A. Taine
b. A. E. Houseman
c. James Trope d. Ronald Gateman
236. Which one is an absolute example of historical novel?
a. Uncle Tom's Cabin b. The Octopus
c. The Return of the Native d. The Last of the Mohicans
237. "God's plenty" is a phrase ascribed to ………..
a. Hills of Africa
b. The Spanish Tragedy
c. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
d. Lazarillo de Tormes
238. What is the reason for the legitimacy of James Throp?
a. He wrote a book on the subject of formalistic approach.
b. He had revolutionary ideas about traditional approaches.
c. He wrote one of the best modem books on the subject and principles of textual criticism.
d. He refused to accept what most of his contemporary critics believed in.
239. Which of the following approaches is as old as classical Greek and Roman critics?
a. Moral-philosophical b. Formalistic
c. Historical-biographical d. Textual criticism
240. What is the main idea in historical-biographical approach?
a. Characters’ life and time
b. Textual matter
c. Author’s time and life
d. Both Characters' life and time as well as Author’s time and life
241. Whose idea is "dulce et utile"?
a. Virgil
b. Horace
c. Longinus
d. Aristotle
242. What is Aristotle's greatest contribution to literary criticism?
a. Style
b. Form
c. Genre
d. Content
243. In 1689, the Bill of.......... limited the powers of the crown, reaffirmed the supremacy of parliament and guaranteed important legal rights for individuals.
a. Fest
b. Oblivion
c. Rights
d. Conformity
244. The scorn and detestation in which dissenters were held may be measured by the delight that readers took in caricature of Presbyterians and Independents in...........
a. Samuel Butler's Hudibras
b. Samuel Johnson's The Vanity of Human Wishes
c. Samuel Richardson's Clarissa
d. John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress
245. Samuel Richardson's Pamela or Virtue Rewarded is a sample of a(n).......... novel.
a. epistolary
b. historical
c. gothic
d. psychological
246. Dryden's undoubted masterpiece in "Serious Drama" is his.......... tragedy.
a. Blank verse
b. closed couplet
c. Blank poem
d. open couplet
247. Except.........., the creator of the modern novel was...........
a. Thomas Nashe - Jonathan Swift
b. Samuel Richardson - Daniel Defoe
c. Jonathan Swift- Thomas Nashe
d. Daniel Defoe - Samuel Richardson
248. Which of the following poets believed that love of God was the most suitable subject for poetry?
a. Herbert
b. Donne
c. Marvell
d. Milton
249. All of the following statements about characteristics of Donne's poetry are true except:..........
a. His style is highly dramatic.
b. His works are imaginative and concern metaphysical conceit.
c. He uses poetic words; his language is difficult and full of ornament.
d. He uses harsh, rough sound deliberately to break away from Elizabethan traditions.
250. ………. became divinity lecturer to Lincoln's Inn and was given an honorary doctorate of divinity degree from Cambridge.
a. Herbert
b. Donne
c. Marvell
d. Spenser
251. He has lots of echoes from the Bible in his poems and drew his comparisons from the Bible, different parts of the church and liturgy.
a. Marvell
b. Donne
c. Herbert
d. Johnson
252........... was best known as a writer and politician in favor of freedom of worship, a champion of liberty and powerful writer of prose pamphlets.
a. Marvell
b. Blake
c. Vaughan
d. Donne
253...........became an Anglican priest in 1615, achieving success, particularly as a preacher of sermons. His poetry ranges from fervent love poetry to powerful religious poetry
a. Gray
b. Cow
c. Donne
d. Herbert
254. The regular or Pindaric ode was introduced into England by ………..
a. Ben Jonson
b. John Keats
c. John Donne
d. Cowley
255. Which of the following is NOT true about Andrew Marvel?
a. A puritan
b. An admirer of Cromwell
c. One of "sons of Ben" d. A master of carpe diem theme
256. Which of the following sentences about Pope is not correct?
a. He believes that for criticizing a work, the critic is to follow nature.
b. He believes in universal laws.
c. He avoids excesses of enthusiasm and freakish originality.
d. He defines nature as a mysterious one.
257. According to Pope, poetry is the business of ………...
a. common people b. rural people
c. urban people d. educated gentlemen
258. Which of the following sentences about good taste is correct according to Pope?
a. It is important for both the poet and the critic to have good taste.
b. It is necessary for the critic to have good taste but not for the poet.
c. It is not important for poet neither for critic to have good taste.
d. Good taste has nothing to do with both the poet and the critic.
259. Which one of the following 17th century literary men was appointed as the assistant to John Milton?
a. George Herbert b. Ben Jonson
c. Andrew Marvell d. Henry Vaughan
260. Who considered Canterbury Tales as God's plenty?
a. Hemingway
b. Chaucer
c. Dryden
d. Donne
261. Which one is the English Restoration comedy dramatist?
a. Moliere c. Congreve
c. Sheridan
d. Wilde
262. Who can we get this idea from: dreams are personalized dreams and myths are depersonalized dreams?
a. Carl Gustav Lung b. Sigmund Freud
c. Mircea Eliade d. William Blake
263........... has pointed out that the Edenic dream itself was as old as the mind of man.
a. Northrop Frye b. Frederic I.Carpenter
c. Captain Edward Johnson d. Gilbert Murray
264. "Living thing in man, that which lives of itself and causes life", says Jung. This is the definition of ………..
a. anima
b. shadow
c. persona
d. consciousness
265. Too artificial or rigid persona results in such symptoms of neurotic disturbance as ………...
a. immorality
b. sexual repression
c. irritability and melancholy d. psychic make up
266. Which of the following archetype patterns does NOT relate to Huckleberry Finn?
a. Water symbolism b. Persona
c. Shadow
d. Archetypal women
267. The key term in Pope's essay on criticism is ………..
a. learning
b. imitation
c. nature
d. wit
268........... contributed a number of essays on the topic of wit.
a. Addison
b. Pope
c. Johnson
d. Dryden
269. Johnson's Lives of the English Poets established.......... criticism.
a. moral
b. traditional
c. biographical d. psychological
270. "To copy nature is to copy them". According to Pope, 'them' refers to...........
a. rules
b. ancients
c. romantics
d. modernists
271. The following statements about the purpose of criticism paraphrase Arnold's sentiments on the subject, except: ……….
a. Criticism prepares the way for creative invention.
b. Criticism locates and preserves value.
c. The critical faculty is as valuable as the creative faculty.
d. Criticism seeks to preserve the purity of literature by treating it.
272. “The aim of the poet is to inform or delight, or to combine together, in what he says, both pleasure and applicability to life.” This statement is by..........
a. Horace
b. Longinus
c. Plato
d. Aristotle
273. The unity of action is the only unity that.......... admits as necessary.
a. Johnson
b. Addison
c. Dryden
d. Pope
274. All of the followings are practical illustrations of exponential patterns in literary works, except:..........
a. plot incidents b. forms
c. ideas
d. imagery
275. Traps and the motif of.......... is NOT mentioned as a motif in Hamlet.
a. love
b. reason
c. space-time continuum d. dilemma
276. Hawthorn's "Young Goodman Brown" in the case of "Pink Ribbons" emblem is the same as ………..
a. Marvell's "To His Coy Mistress"
b. Hawthorn's "Scarlet Letter"
c. Hardy's "Tess of the De Urbervilles"
d. Shakespeare's "Hamlet"
277. The most important thing in Wordsworth is the emphasis on ………..
a. merely the feelings of the poet
b. the individualism of the poet
c. following the rules of nature
d. the use of poetic diction
278. Regarding Dr Johnson, what is Shakespeare's most characteristic fault?
a. His delight in quibbles b. Lack of morality
c. Lack of decorum d. Spoiling Aristotelian unities
279. "True wit is nature to advantage dressed, what oft was thought, but never so well expressed". This statement refers to ………..
a. Dryden
b. Johnson
c. Pope
d. Boileau
280. According to Pope, what is necessary to the critic as genius is to the poet?
a. Good taste
b. Deep order
c. Moderation
d. Universal laws
281. All of the following are NOT true except: ……….
a. Johnson is against Milton but praises Paradise Lost.
b. Johnson appreciates metaphysical style.
c. There is no sign of Romanticism in Johnson's doctrine except the spirit of the time.
d. Johnson praises Shakespeare for he does not make love the central passion of his drama.
282. In the writings of Davenant and Hobbes, the primacy is given to..........
a. reason
b. divinity
c. inspiration
d. imagination
283...........in his..........expresses that human mind is able to reach certainty through sense experience.
a. Hobbs - Leviathan
b. Lock - Essay Concerning Human Understanding
c. Thomas Overbuy - Characters
d. Robert Burton - The Anatomy of Melancholy
284. To which of these works does the following proverb belong: "A little learning is a dangerous thing"?
a. An Essay on Criticism b. Silent Woman
c. Paradise Lost d. Essay of Dramatic Poesy
285. ………. critics including Crane emphasized upon theory, historical perspective and scholarly discipline. But they have stimulated very little practical criticisms.
a. Feminist
b. Aristotelian
c. Genre
d. Linguistic
286. Crane's "Language of Criticism" and "Structure of Poetry" encouraged a renewal of interest in genre criticism by critics like ………..
a. Burke and Frye b. Walcutt and Scholes
c. Kellogg and Frye d. Mckeon and Burke
287........... argues that although she is an archetypal critic and continues to use archetypal criticism she is deficient in understanding the role of women.
a. Janet Kaplan
b. Judith Fryer
c. Annis Pratt
d. Elaine Showalter
288. On Marxist literary theory all of the following are true except:..........
a. Literature is a reflection of the basic economic structure of society
b. An advance in the economic sphere automatically produces a higher form of literature
c. Literary superstructures of extraordinary richness have developed in primitive economic systems
d. An epic, a poem, and a play are produced by the same forces that produce social classes
289. Who theorized that the writer was a man who satisfied erotic drives which could not be satisfied in real life by creating a fantasy life where he could obtain instinctual satisfaction in a sublimated form?
a. Jung
b. Lacan
c. Freud
d. Lawrence
290. Authors and works are matched except: ……….
a. Granville Hicks - The Great Tradition
b. Marx - Critique of Political Economy
c. Joseph Freeman - Proletarian Literature in the United States
d. Engels - The Descent of Man

نظرات کاربران درباره کتاب A Collection of 3000 Classified Multiple Choice Tests on English Literature